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Quenching and tempering of steel is a process that heats hot roll pickled or cold roll steel up to iron’s highest temperature phase (austenite) and rapidly quenches or cools to iron’s most unstable phase (martensite).
Depending on chemistry content, martensite is often too hard and brittle for most applications so further heat treatment is necessary.
Tempering is a low-temperature heat treatment that restores ductility or formability by marginally decreasing the strength.