Ultra high-strength Boron steels are alloyed with a small amount of boron, usually less than 1%.
Boron steels are used frequently in the automotive industry for a variety of applications, including strengthening the elements around car door frames, as dash cross-members or rollover bars, and in reclining seats.
Flat boron steel for automotive use is hot stamped in cooled molds from the austenitic state (obtained by heating to 900-950C), which allows it to be lightweight while remaining very hard.
Boron steel can be used in a variety of industries besides automotive, including fiberglass insulation manufacturing, aerospace, or recreational sports such as golfing and fishing.
Boron is effective at very low concentrations - 30 ppm B can replace an equivalent 0.4% Cr, 0.5% C, or 0.12% V.
Soluble boron arranges in steels along grain boundaries.
This retards the γ-α transformations (austenite to ferrite transformation) by diffusion and therefore increases the hardenability, with an optimal range of ~ 0.0003 to 0.003% B.
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